Развитие творческих способностей учащихся 8-х классов (в рамках темы проводники и диэлектрики)

Развитие творческих способностей учащихся 8-х классов (в рамках темы проводники и диэлектрики)

Авторы публикации






Журнал «Научный лидер» выпуск # 36 (134), Сентябрь ‘23

Дата публикации 15.09.2023


В статье рассматриваются основные способы формирования креативных способностей учащихся на уроке физики в школе. Приведены примеры заданий, направленных на развитие нестандартного мышления. Проанализированы основные моменты формирования креативности.

In the classroom, a physics teacher in modern society has to use increasingly new technologies and teaching tools, as this helps to more effectively form the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities of schoolchildren on a specific topic, as well as to solve personal, social, practice-oriented tasks. All this is the result of the integration of knowledge by the teacher from other fields of sciences (mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, etc.) and allows the student to instill flexibility, creativity and cognitive interest in the subject being studied [3].

In turn, the development of creative abilities (creativity) increases the level of stability of motivation for learning activities, which is characterized by high academic performance, creativity, initiative in the classroom, self-development and self-education of the student [10]. Hence, we notice that the ability to be creative can give a person a lot of useful things: flexibility and depth of mind, reflection, solving problems by different methods. The creative success of an adult depends on those neoplasms that were formed at school age [1]. Therefore, the development of students' creativity is relevant, since a creative personality is multifaceted and requires a special pedagogical approach.

Creativity – from the definition of the psychological dictionary [4], the level of creative giftedness, the ability to create. It was compared with the function of intelligence and its level of development, and psychologists came to the conclusion that a high level of intelligence hinders the development of creativity. Creativity, in contrast to creativity, is an activity that is aimed at creating a new material or spiritual good. L. S. Vygotsky studied creativity and came to the conclusion that by creating new things, the level of creative thinking develops [2].

Physics, in simple words, is the science of nature, which reveals to us the structure of the real world, is considered the most suitable school discipline on which creativity is successfully formed. Considering conductors and dielectrics in the 8th grade according to the textbook of Peryshkin A.V., schoolchildren learn that it is possible to connect conductors (in series and in parallel) and recognize what a material is (conductor, dielectric or semiconductor) by thinking or solving certain inventive tasks [7].

Example of the task: to come up with a mechanical model of the experiment of L.I.Mandelstam and N.D. Papaleksi, proving the electronic nature of the conductivity of metals [8].

In the 11th grade, according to the textbook of Myakishev G.Ya., B.B. Bukhovtsev,, N.N. Sotsky, the material becomes more complicated and several subspecies of dielectrics are added (ferroelectrics, piezo electrics, pyroelectrics) [5].

Example of the problem: the bone has a piezoelectric effect, and therefore its deformation is accompanied by the appearance of an electric field. In this case, the stretched surface of the bone is always positively charged with respect to the compressible bone. If the bone works for bending, then its concave surface is negatively charged, and the convex one is positively charged. The electric field strength at normal loads, as a rule, does not exceed 0.5 V / cm. What is called the piezoelectric effect? What types of piezoelectric effect exist? Calculate with what force the electric field will act on the electron near the deformed bone [9]?

Such tasks can be given explicitly, where it is required to use only mental abilities, but the level of creativity will not rise. The teacher can present the task in a playful way, in the form of debates, quizzes, contests, a separate project, and trouble hacking [6]. Also, students can be asked to draw a task with types of conductors (posters, invented electrical circuits), thereby checking how they understand the material and the level of their creativity. The more diverse the task, the more effectively students' creative abilities are formed.

Thus, we can conclude that the creative personality is multifaceted and requires a special pedagogical approach. Creativity is formed only when students turn on creative thinking. In physics lessons, the teacher is recommended to make his lesson diverse, thereby developing the creative and intellectual thinking of schoolchildren.

Список литературы

  1. Bibikova N. V., Eremina L. I. Formirovanie Kreativnosti SHkol'nikov V Pedagogicheskom Processe [Formation of Creativity of Schoolchildren in The Pedagogical Process] // Uspekhi Sovremennoj Nauki [Successes of Modern Science]. 2017. № 2.
  2. Vygotskij L. S. Izbrannye psihologicheskie issledovaniya [Selected psychological studies]. – Moscow, 1956.
  3. Gavrilova G. N., Sadetdinov SH. V. integraciya znanij kak pedagogicheskoe uslovie formirovaniya kreativnosti shkol'nikov [integration of knowledge as a pedagogical condition for the formation of creativity of schoolchildren] // Bulletin of Bashkir University, 2009. № 3.
  4. Kratkij psihologicheskij slovar' [A brief psychological dictionary] / Pod obshch. Red. A.V. Petrovskogo, M.G. YAroshevskogo [Under the general Editorship of A.V. Petrovsky, M.G. Yaroshevsky]. – Rostov n/D.: Feniks [Phoenix], 1999. – p. 173.
  5. Myakishev G.YA. Fizika 10 klass: ucheb. dlya obshcheobrazovat. organizacij s pril. na elektron. nositele: bazovyj uroven' [Physics 10th grade: studies. for general education. organizations with adj. on the electron. media: basic level] / G.YA. Myakishev, B.B. Buhovcev, N.N. Skotskij: pod red. N.A. Parfent'evoj. – Moscow: Prosveshchenie [Enlightenment], 2014. – p. 416.
  6. Pen'kov V. E., Volochkov I. V. Pedagogicheskij Potencial Trablhakinga V Formirovanii Tvorcheskogo Myshleniya [Pedagogical Potential of Trablhacking in The Formation of Creative Thinking] // Sovremennye Problemy Nauki I Obrazovaniya [Modern Problems Of Science And Education]. 2020. № 3.
  7. Peryshkin A.V. Fizika 8 klass: ucheb. dlya obshcheobrazovat. uchrezhdenij [Physics 8th grade: studies. for general education. institutions] / A.V. Peryshkin. – Moscow: Drofa, 2013. – p.237.
  8. Razumovskij V.G. Tvorcheskie zadachi po fizike v srednej shkole[Creative tasks in physics in secondary school] / V.G. Razumovskij. – Moscow: Prosveshchenie [Enlightenment], 1966. - p. 154.
  9. Semke A.I. Nestandartnye zadachi po fizike [Non-standard problems in physics] / A.I. Semke. – YAroslavl': Akademiya razvitiya [Yaroslavl: Academy of Development], 2007. – p. 320.
  10. Stukalova E. A. Kreativnost' uchitelya kak sredstvo razvitiya uchebnoj motivacii shkol'nikov [Creativity of a teacher as a means of developing educational motivation of schoolchildren] // Al'manah Mirovoj Nauki [Almanac of World Science], 2015. № 2.
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