Организационные аспекты обучения леворуких учащихся начальных классов
Сказка "Алиса в стране чудес", написанная Льюисом Кэрроллом, который сам был левшой, дает четкое объяснение основной проблемы леворуких детей в школе. Автор описал мир, в котором все происходит наоборот: расстояния сближаются, время движется назад. Это может объяснить особенности обработки информации леворуким школьником.
До недавнего времени учителя начальных классов бросали все силы на борьбу с "даром" леворуких детей, переучивая их писать правой рукой, но сейчас они отказались от этого, так как это не приносит ничего, кроме стресса. Для эффективного обучения таким детям лучше использовать специальные методики, чтобы они как можно больше пользовались левой рукой.
Журнал «Научный лидер» выпуск # 10 (55), март ‘22
Дата публицакии 04.03.2022
Every year, psychologists and teachers observe an increase in left-handed (right-brained) children. Twenty-five years ago, virtually no students in the classroom were left-handed. Today, the situation is entirely different. T this is still the most pervasive issue in education for teachers who have ever had a left-handed student in their class. Hence, many educators and parents are concerned about difficulties teaching this particular group of students. All of this may be explained by the fact that left-handedness is a preference for the left hand and a fundamentally different distribution of functions between the brain's hemispheres at the current level of understanding. So, rather than a child's wish or whim, the brain's particular organization determines which hand is more prominent in the child's life.
Several scientists have explored the problem of left-handedness. It has been possible to develop diagnostic methods based on physiological (H.N. Bragina, G. Deutsch, T.A. Dobrokhotova, S. Springer) [4, p. 18] and psychological (V.L. Bianchi), I.V. Efimova and psychological aspects) aspects of identifying the individual profile of lateral signs [1, p. 47], [2, p. 36]. The methodological aspects of working with left-handed children are thoroughly discussed (S.M. Bondarenko, Yu.Z. Gilbukh, Yu.V. Mikadze, J. Piaget, B.C. Rotenberg) [6, p. 85], [9, p. 14]. Teachers of left-handed children in primary school focused on of numerous scientists' investigations. When it comes to relearning a left-handed child, it has been found that the scenario is highly stressful for the child's psyche [1, p. 90].
The relevance of the topic we have chosen stems from the fact that left-handed children are becoming more common, and work with them was previously aimed at retraining, adjusting them to a common standard. However, now psychologists and educators have studied the essence of left-handedness in greater depth and have concluded that retraining can negatively affect the child's psyche. Parents, as well as teachers, underwent extensive retraining. They may have done this out of fear of making fun of their left-handed child or because they wonder it would hinder their ability to get a job in the future; they may also have done it because they have retrained left-handers themselves. Additionally, refusing to retrain a left-handed child does not resolve the majority of issues that develop throughout his education at school. A left-handed child is taught the same way as a right-handed child, without relying on unique left-handed teaching methods. The child's attempt to reconstruct it without sufficient prerequisites will lead to the child growing neurotic reactions. Left-handed children are more likely to develop anxiety symptoms because they experience "dextra-stress" in the right-handed world (right-handed stress) [15, p 225]. The world around them is designed for right-handed people, which causes problems for left-handed people (doors, musical instruments). As a result, approaches for working with left-handed children have to be developed. Left-handedness is not a trait, it is not an illness, and it is not the product of a teacher's error. It is one of the possible outcomes of a child's average growth, which frequently depends on the innate genetic characteristics of the child's brain structure.
Unfortunately, left-handedness remains a little-studied phenomenon. Left-handed people have different brain functions in the right and left hemispheres than right-handed. Thus the majority of research on this phenomenon has been accomplished in neuropsychology. Unfortunately, the findings of such studies are practically irrelevant to pedagogy. Suppose there are recommendations for teachers in publications on this topic. In that case, they mainly relate to narrow problems, such as the hand's position when writing or teaching accurate (and not mirror) copying of the sample, which is, of course, very important[12, p. 118]. However, It is not enough to solve many other problems that constantly arise in this group of children, at least in the first or second years of education. An analysis of the literature showed that a lot had been written about left-handed children, but adapting to a world where everything is designed for the right hand made us think about this problem. The discrepancy is between the need to research the issues of left-handedness and the lack of study and representation in methodological literature. From the contradiction, the following research problem was revealed: what are the features of the organization of the learning process for left-handed children in elementary school?
WHAT IS LEFT-HANDEDNESS? WHY DOES IT HAPPEN?
According to the explanatory dictionary of psychiatric words, "left-handedness is a genetically established preference for utilizing the left hand preferentially when executing deliberate acts that are typically performed with the right hand, such as writing, sketching, or using a spoon."Left-handedness will likely be hidden if a person develops the ability to perform such actions with the right hand during the ontogenesis process. It is discovered unexpectedly, in some affectively conditioned states, and through simple behavioral tests. Left-handedness indicates that higher cortical functions, such as speech, reading, and writing, are located in the right hemisphere of the brain" [11, p. 51].In psychiatry, left-handedness is defined as a genetically determined preference for using the left hand for purposeful actions (writing, drawing). After studying the concept of left-handedness, we can conclude that all definitions of this concept are nearly identical.
Nevertheless, it makes it impossible to determine precisely the phenomenon of left-handedness. There are many reasons people are left-handed, so it is impossible to talk about some common traits that all left-handed kids have. The critical point is that left-handedness should not be seen as a source of developmental abnormalities or deviations; the decline in intellectual and physical ability is not caused by it, as was previously assumed. There is no such thing as an illness when it comes to being left-handed. The dominant hand depends not on the individual child but a unique brain activity pattern.
LEFT-HANDED CHILDREN’S PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
As a result of significant developments in education, much emphasis is placed on developing individuality and the education of a fully developed personality. All innovations and educational and psychological techniques ensure that all students and children feel comfortable. The British researcher M. Annette and several other researchers analyzed children aged 5-11 who were strongly left-handed, strongly right-handed, or had less obvious left- or right-handedness. They correlated the strength of the dominance of the dominant hand with the children's speech abilities and non-verbal forms of thinking, and their educational achievements. The researchers demonstrated that children who slightly prefer the right hand are much more capable. Researchers found two fascinating facts that pertain to substantially right-handed children. Firstly, a high level of right-hand dominance is justified only by the poor quality of this hand's performance, not by its diminished potential.
Secondly, there is a good chance that some of these people's underrated I.Q. is due to a modest right-hemispheric deficit. It is most likely explains the awkwardness of the left hand in this group, which was revealed through special investigations. Subsequent research by M. Annette established that youngsters who are not very right-handed or strongly left-handed have a lower indication of intellect and lower markers of ordered activity. There is an opinion that left-handed people have some mental functions that are lower compared to right-handed people. Left-handed children can easily express mathematical abilities, and problems can arise with understanding and analyzing the situation. Using the left or right hand as a leading hand is not a child's whim or the unwillingness of those around him. It is accomplished by first parrying a person's mental activity. This mental activity can not be changed at will. If there is an intervention, especially at an early age, it will lead to 17 unexpected consequences that have every chance to manifest themselves after a while. Teachers and parents do not need to retrain the child under the general rules and criteria. He may use whichever hand is most comfortable for him.
Meanwhile, parents should develop their child's both hands; take objects in both hands in turns during any activity. The issue of retraining should be decided at a slightly older age together with specialists. In educational organizations, elementary school teachers have constantly retrained left-handed students. This initiative ensured that the child was not different and was not a target for bullying. Parents were also involved in this process, sometimes using old methods. One of these methods was that the child's left hand was tied to his body during written work.[19, p. 63]. For most children, such forced retraining is predisposed to increased irritation incontinence. In addition, sleep worsened, night terrors appeared: suddenly, in the middle of the night, the child could scream, cry, call for mom. Stuttering has been observed in some instances.
Because the approach of teaching writing and its structure is geared for children with a dominant right hand, parents and teachers sometimes struggle to organize work with left-handed children. The technique discusses concerns such as the proper placement of the notebook during written work, the importance of paying attention to the slope of the letters, and the appropriate fit when writing. It can be concluded that it is challenging for left-handed children to live in a right-handed world. A left-handed child can have many problems at school. However, not everyone will have learning difficulties. Modern school programs are aimed, of course, at the development of logical-sign thinking. The left hemisphere does not allow the child to realize his potential. Once the youngster has mastered the letter, they must choose the lettering version that is most convenient for them. Demanding an unseparated letter from a left-hander is not recommended. This best position for comfortable studying for the child is by the window to sit to the neighbor's left. In this position, the child will not bother his coworker, and he will be able to work in a well-lit environment. As a result, we suggest that teachers and parents pay more attention to the needs of left-handed students.
ANALYSES OF TEACHER’S LEVELS OF EXPERTISE ON WORKING WITH LEFT-HANDED STUDENTS
The education of left-handed children will be carried out successfully if teachers give due time to work with such children. It is necessary that the child be interested, active, cooperating with teachers and parents. The task of teachers is to create conditions for the maximum realization of the personality of their capabilities. A survey was conducted among teachers aged 32 to 63 years. The average age of a primary school teacher at school is 46.9 years. That indicates that the teachers are already quite experienced in working with children. We asked what kind of education teachers have and found out that 80% of teachers graduated from higher educational institutions. That implies that teachers are adequately certified and trained and are prepared to work with any child.
Additionally, the teacher's experience was questioned. During the analysis of the findings, it was discovered that two teachers have 20 years of work experience, two have 32 years, two have 12 years, one has 15, another has 26, and one has 25 years. She is also a 16-year veteran instructor. These results indicate that teachers have adequate pedagogical expertise. That means they should know how to work effectively with such students. In total, during their tenure as elementary school teachers, they are encountered around 56 left-handed students out of 548 elementary school graduates. That is, 10% of all children released were left-handed. Hence, teachers should be prepared to work with students born with a left-handed grip. As respondents answered questions on the fifth through eleventh questionnaires, we compiled the information shown in table 1.
The results of the diagnosis of primary school teachers about the features of the organization of education for left-handed children
Only 20% of teachers believe that such youngsters have significant difficulties acquiring writing, whereas 60% are confident that they do not. Based on the facts, we can conclude that teachers do not observe any problems in writing development in 34 left-handed children, as scientists have demonstrated that left-handedness is not a cause of inaccurate writing. For a left-handed child to learn to write correctly, not many conditions are needed at all, but these conditions are also not necessary. It all depends on the child himself and his mental and physical development. 70% are sure that left-handed children have difficulties with orientation in space, 10% feel there are no challenges, and the rest do not know. That is, 70% of teachers, most likely, in practice, either saw or noticed that left-handed children are poorly oriented in space since their right hemisphere is developed more, and since they have a left hand, they consider it as a right. As a result, they frequently get perplexed.
The study's difficulty is significant because teachers must make particular methodological recommendations and complex assignments for left-handed learners based on theoretical and scientific information from a teacher's perspective.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS AND PARENTS OF LEFT-HANDED CHILDREN
The survey we conducted made it possible to identify teachers' insufficient knowledge of the problem of teaching and educating left-handed children. There have been selected recommendations and exercises for teachers to work with left-handed children in this regard.
Experts have proven that the systematization of knowledge is very important for left-handed people. For example, the right-handed child can skip some points, but overall he will understand the topic, then a left-handed child cannot do it. Each new material should be assimilated gradually, with repetition and consolidation.
The essential thing in the development and education of a left-handed child is that one should not try to retrain left-handed children, as this can affect their mental and physical condition. It is also necessary to equip a training place in the classroom and at home, considering all the requirements for landing a left-handed child at the workplace. The child must also be taught how to grasp a book appropriately to absorb educational material quickly. Unique recipes must teach children how to write correctly and tidy. The adolescent will drink the content more smoothly, be interested, and be more active in any activity because he will not feel like a stranger among right-handed children.
Unfortunately, nothing is known about why some people are born with a natural tendency to write with their left hand. For this reason, neuropsychologists have made significant advances in their understanding of left-handedness' atypical distribution of functions across the brain's two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex. The findings of these studies, on the other hand, cannot be used in the classroom. People can find publications or articles with recommendations for teachers, but they all deal with relatively few problems. Left-handed youngsters must be done individually or as close to it as possible. The left-handed child is easily lost in a classroom with an average of 25-30 classmates. As a result, the instructor must assess the explanation process from the perspective of left-handed children while also considering the possibility that such a child may not understand, which is a secondary point and critical for comprehending the content being explained.
Nevertheless, it should not be forgotten that parents play no small role in educating "not such" children. It also depends on the parents how the child will behave in school. The article finishes with the words of the psychologist M.M. Bezrukikh "A left-handed child needs special attention and approach, but not because he is left-handed, but because each child is unique and inimitable."
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