Применение активных методов обучения на уроках математики
The article examines the actual problems of using active teaching methods in mathematics lessons. Methods of active learning are aimed to increase the activity of students, to awaken their cognitive interest, to help memorize the material they studied before more deeply. Special attention is paid to aspects. It tells that: communication is not only a way of transmitting information but also an active process; students are involved in creative and intellectual activities during the lesson; the teacher needs to research the class in advance when choosing a method of teaching and correct the identified problems during the game if they present. The article is intended for teachers, students of physical and mathematical specialties of pedagogical universities. It can also be used by students of preschool and primary education.
Журнал «Научный лидер» выпуск # 9 (11), апрель ‘21
Дата публикации 02.04.2021
Every year the level of education is growing In modern society, because new methods, technologies, tools and techniques of teaching are being introduced at school.
It contributes to the solution of the main mission in study — to form of a highly educated person who can continue self-development, self-education, self-learning throughout life. As a fact, form good manners and learning the next generational of children is assigned to the previous one  .
Teachers need to use active teaching methods in the classroom to achieve a high level of personal education in mathematics, because these methods include a cognitive interest in the subject in students and contribute to deep memorization of educational material.
Teachers who know about active teaching methods do not apply in their practice and they prefer to use the traditional form of teaching or use a combination of different teaching methods. "The introduction of active teaching methods in the modern educational process will allow students to form a cognitive interest in the subject, to be active and give the opportunity to apply the acquired knowledge in their lives» .
Communication take up more time in social groups because it is an active process . There is going understanding of the information and this creates to a certain structure (style of communication). The math teacher needs to create conditions where children can to develop communication skills. " To improve communication competence in students, writes Y.N. Emelyanov— - do not need to find in polishing behavioral skills and dot not find in risky attempts of personal reconstruction, but on the ways of active understanding the individual of natural interpersonal situations and himself as a participant in these activity situations, on the ways of develop a socio-psychological imagination that allows you to see the world from the point of view of other people" . Creating an artificial environment ("interpersonal and activity situations") in the classroom, the teacher involves children in different groups of interaction. For example, for this form of interaction is profession’s games where children can to act different social roles and they connect every life’s situations with the definitions of the lesson. "In real life, a teenager does not communicate with peers only, but also with older and younger children, he can be happy or sad, and lives a variety of hard life situations. He must "disconnect" from the real world and go to somewhat artificial world at the lesson, but it does not work especially for a younger students" - notes Zagvyazinsky V. I. . The teacher organizes the lesson as such a way that children can "switch off" and can feel like free individuals, give free rein to the expression of opinions, immerse themselves in a creative atmosphere. Age of children, worldview, communication style and activity of person changes over time. If a child wants to become a specialist in fundamental and applied sciences in the future, he should start self-education from school , where active learning methods will help to get acquainted with different professions, different temperaments of people, and to maintain a certain style of communication . We can conclude that the communication is not only a way of transmitting information, but also an active process. For example, the discussion methods are the type of active learning methods that is based on communication between the participants in the dispute in the process of solving educational problems. The student, during the discussion in the lesson, can also discover new things for himself and correct misunderstood information, as well as decide on a future profession.
The student uses higher mental functions in a profession game, the purpose of which is to solve a certain educational problem. However the task is given not only for the development of higher mental functions but also notes Shchukina G. A. : "The task should cause pleasant sensations, joyful experiences from successfully overcoming difficulties ..." , so that the cognitive interest in the subject does not lost and the desire remains for self-development. "Teaching is the activity of the subject, an activity, a factor of mental development." - so claims the Zimnaja I. A . Working with educational material, you can to imagine (include imagination), to experiment, do self-development — all this can be attributed to the creative development of the individual, to his activities. For example, the method of "brainstorming" allows you to develop creative thinking of students by presenting any short judgments. Then during the process of screening out(criticism), correct or close to the answer judgments remain. L. S. Vygotsky set the dependence the educations entail development since the personality develops in the process of activity . Thus, students are involved in creative and intellectual activities during the lesson. Developing memory, intellection, perception and speech, solving certain learning tasks in the classroom using active learning methods.
The formation of cognitive interest, the creation of a favorable atmosphere in the classroom with the help of active teaching methods is a difficult, but solvable task. During the game, children can learn from life experience, so claims D. N. Kavtaradze: "simulation or business games unfold problems in dynamics, allow their participants to live dozens of conditional years in a compressed reality in time and events." . However the choice of the field of activity in which students will be located largely depends on the focus of the lesson topic, which sometimes makes it difficult to apply a certain teaching method. It should be noted that the creation of a favorable atmosphere largely depends on the interpersonal relationships in the classroom. Therefore, Gazman O. S. recommends to introduce children to each other, "...to find pain points in game relationships that cause hostility of peers: physical disabilities, stubbornness, slowness, passivity, malevolence, pugnacity" and also to correct these shortcomings in the course of a certain game . Without having "solid" knowledge, the student does not form mental activity, that is, cognitive interest. According to Semushin A.D.: "effective activation of students' mental activity is possible only on the basis of solid knowledge of the student" . Indeed, the formation of cognitive interest and the creation of a favorable environment is a difficult task for a teacher, since there are students in the class who may have negative qualities: malevolence, slowness, etc. Therefore, when choosing a method of teaching, the teacher needs to study the class in advance, its features, and correct the identified shortcomings during the game.
Thus, the use of active teaching methods requires a high level of training from the teacher, but the use of active teaching methods in the classroom allows you to emotionally involve children in the process of learning knowledge. Children can try on different roles, become a team, get involved in activities (not idle) - this will increase the level of interest in the subject being studied and the level of mental and intellectual development.
Our research has confirmed that the use of active teaching methods in math lessons allows you to develop cognitive interest, activity in the classroom and also allows students to strengthen the knowledge gained that will still be useful in life.
The results of this study can be used by students and teachers when planning math lessons, as well as for information about active teaching methods.
In our opinion, active teaching methods are an effective way to conduct lessons in mathematics, as it increases the developing effect, creates an atmosphere of creative search, students are in the process of activity.