Особенности обращения в казахском, русском и английском речевом этикете

Особенности обращения в казахском, русском и английском речевом этикете

Речевой этикет - это правила и принципы, которые помогают людям эффективно общаться. Владение речевым этикетом способствует приобретению авторитета, порождает доверие и уважение. Соблюдение человеком этикета общения также имеет воспитательное значение. Данная статья посвящена рассмотрению понятий "речевой этикет" и "обращение" в языковой системе и в процессе общения. В статье рассматриваются особенности функционирования обращения как единицы речевого этикета в казахском, русском и английском языках, сходства и различия в применении. В статье приводятся основные формы обращения на английском языке, различные формы обращения на казахском и русском языках.  Такое сравнение чрезвычайно важно для понимания особенностей языка и культуры, национальных стилей общения, стратегий вежливости, а также для повышения межкультурной коммуникативной компетенции при общении на иностранном языке. В данной статье рассказывается о том, как правильно называть и как правильно разговаривать с людьми, находящимися в отдаленных отношениях, в соответствии с их возрастными особенностями, степенями, другими особенностями. Например, рассказывается о том, как обращаться к незнакомцам на улице, новым знакомым, пожилым людям, членам семьи, коллегам, клиентам, деловым партнерам или руководителям.

Авторы публикации




Журнал «Научный лидер» выпуск # 5 (50), февраль ‘22


Communication is one of the main assets of humanity, the basis of our daily life, and the level of culture in this area should always remain high. Efficiency (correct transmission of information, conveying one's own thoughts, the ability to arouse another person's interest and sympathy) provides a favorable atmosphere for contact and compliance with the rules of speech behavior. Speech behavior reflects the level of upbringing, the inner culture of a person: a friendly attitude to the interlocutor, friendliness, favor receive verbal embodiment [1] and are realized in the formulas of speech etiquette.

Speech etiquette is an essential part of the national language and culture. The speech culture of an individual correlates with the norms of speech behavior accepted in society and with the general culture of society. The rules of behavior are characterized by the concept of "etiquette": "a set of rules of behavior referring to the external manifestation of attitude towards people (treatment of others, forms of address and greetings, behavior in public places, manners, and clothing)"[2] – includes in the list the rules of speech behavior that are obligatory for everyone.

"Etiquette (French etiquette - label, tag) is a set of rules of behavior concerning the external manifestation of attitude towards people (treatment of others, forms of address and greetings, behavior in public places, manners and clothing)." As we can see, the very word "etiquette" came to us from France. And labels were small paper tablets issued to those who wanted (or were forced to) appear before the king. They were written on how a person should address the king, what movements he should make, what words to say [3].

Speech etiquette is understood by us more broadly than just specialized techniques for establishing, maintaining and opening contacts of communicants. In our understanding, the speech ticket can include all those language and speech tools that help communicants achieve harmony in communication, demonstrating respect for each other. The means of speech etiquette are designed to help avoid risks in interpersonal, social and professional communication. With the help of speech etiquette, ethical communicative norms are implemented, i.e. norms of proper speech behavior.

The general acceptance and "communicative comfort" of observing the rules of etiquette are the main designation of their essence. These rules ensure the success of communication, they are based on the very "postulate of attitude to the interlocutor", about which quite a lot has been said. A friendly attitude and interest in the interlocutor, the desire to understand him to determine both the forms of establishing contact and the general tone of the conversation.

"Speech etiquette is understood as the regulating rules of speech behavior, a system of nationally specific stereotypes, stable communication formulas adopted and prescribed by society to establish contact between interlocutors, maintain and interrupt contact in the chosen key"[4].

These are the rules that determine the use of stable speech formulas correlated with specific, frequently repeated communication situations: greeting and farewell formulas, apologies or gratitude.

What factors determine the formation of speech etiquette and its use? L.A. Vvedenskaya defines these factors as follows:

1. Speech etiquette is built taking into account the characteristics of partners entering into business relations, conducting a business conversation: the social status of the subject and the addressee of communication, their place in the service hierarchy, their profession, nationality, religion, age, gender, character.

2. Speech etiquette is determined by the situation in which communication takes place. It can be a presentation, a conference, a symposium, a meeting, a consultation, an anniversary or another holiday

3. The basis of speech etiquette consists of speech formulas, the nature of which depends on the characteristics of communication. Any act of communication has a beginning, the main part and a final part. In this regard, the formulas of speech etiquette are divided into 3 main groups: 1) speech formulas for the beginning of communication, 2) speech formulas used in the process of communication, 3) speech formulas for the end of the communication[5].

Greeting and address set the tone for the whole conversation. Depending on the social role of the interlocutors, the degree of their closeness, you-communication or You-communication is chosen. The communication situation also plays an important role. The address performs a contact-establishing function, is a means of intimization [6, p. 308], therefore, throughout the entire speech situation, the appeal should be pronounced repeatedly: this indicates both good feelings for the interlocutor, and attention to his words.

Speech etiquette has national specifics, and it is unique in different countries of the world. Even imagining how to address a person, foreign misters, sirs, madams and senoritas come to mind, well, how without uncles and aunts. Communication is different in the east, west, south and north. Speech cultures appeared in accordance with the norms and traditions of each nation, which is why they are unique.

The skillful use of addressing is an important element of any national culture. "Addressing is when we turn the word to another person, genuine or fictional, from the one that the real word itself requires" [7]. M.V. Lomonosov considered the address as the direction of speech and referred to the figures adorning speech.

Forms of address are significant for effectual and successful messages and have long been advised an extremely considerable pointer of the state of relations. You can use different forms of address to express your respectfulness or appreciation for other people, as well as to insult or mortify them. In order to act towards people correctly, various factors must be taken into accounts, such as social status, gender, age, family relationships, professional hierarchy, race, or degree of intimacy.

The term address in modern linguistics has several meanings. V.E. Goldin gave the following definition: "Appeal is one of the main universal means developed by language to serve human communication, to establish a connection between the utterance and the subject of communication, to integrate different sides and components of the communication situation into a single communicative act" [8]. N.V. Formanovskaya's point of view is interesting, which indicates a sharp difference in the syntactic function of the address. "The address arises on the basis of words, but they are not words themselves. This is no longer the word name (as the name of a third person), but a communicative unit addressed to the addressee, i.e. a kind of speech action (speech act) consisting of a call and a name at the same time" [9].

In the following, we present the accepted rules of address forms in Kazakh, Russian, and English. An Englishman or an American can be addressed by his name, his title, his name, or without a name. Similar appeals can also be found in Kazakh and Russian. These forms of address can be found in everyday communication, both orally and in writing. In addition to attracting the attention of other people, address forms also perform additional significant social functions, such as showing respect, showing intimacy, respecting, or humiliating other people.

The Kazakh community is characterized by a respectful, respectful attitude towards elders. Children from an early age are taught not to contradict, to give way, to be helpful towards parents and strangers of advanced age. The Kazakh people have their own specific treatment formulas and distinctive features associated with the way of life and everyday life. In family and everyday communication, addressing the elders, the younger ones use the vocative form of kinship terms, for example, ata (grandfather), apa (sister), azhe (grandmother, grandmother), ake (father), agha (older brother, uncle), zhenge (daughter-in-law). Also, in situations of informal communication in the Kazakh language, such forms of address as zholdas, dostym, kurdas (friend, buddy), karyndas (sister), inishek (brother), balam (son), bauyrym (my brother), korshi (neighbor)are possible. We would like to emphasize that a distinctive feature of the Kazakh communicative culture is the very frequent use of kinship terms in the process of communication within the family. For all family members, whether they are related by blood or marriage, there is a name, while in certain situations relatives can address each other not by name, by the name of a kinship, for example, kudasha - the younger sister of the groom or the bride, baldyz - the groom's address to the younger brothers, sisters of the bride. Parents, relatives or elders in family and household communication turn to children, as well as to younger people, using the words: aiym (my moon), sholpanym (my Venus), kunim (my sun), zhanym (darling), zhuldyzym (my star), balapanym (my chick), botakanym ( my camel), kogershinim (my dove), kozym (my lamb), kulynshagym (my foal), etc. As can be seen from the above-mentioned words-appeals, the peculiarity of Kazakh appeals is widespread of words associated with the names of baby animals and birds [10].

Before the revolution, there were other forms of address: myrza (lord), khanym (lady), bikesh (young lady), taksyr (lord). These forms have long been out of use, although myrza and khanym are now returning to official speech when addressing high-ranking officials. The most common form of official address now serves as zholdas (comrade), azamat (citizen), also in the professional sphere, an ariptester (colleagues) is used. In official speech or in business correspondence, the addresses asa kymbatty (dear), asa kurmetti (highly respected) are also used.

The monarchical system in Russia of the twentieth century preserved the division of people into estates: dvoryan (nobles), duhovenstvo (clergy), prostolyudini (commoners), kupsi (merchants), krestyane (peasants). Hence the treatment of gospodin (mister), gospozha (mistress) in relation to people of privileged classes; sir, madam - for the middle class or master, lady for both and the lack of a single appeal to representatives of the lower class. In other civilized countries, the addresses were the same for all strata and classes (Mr., Mrs., Miss - England, USA; signor, signorina, signora - Italy; pan, pani - Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia).

After the revolution, all the old ranks are abolished and two new addresses are introduced: "tovarish" (comrade) and "grazhdanin" (citizen). The word "grazhdanin"(citizen) comes from the Old Slavonic citizen (city dweller). In the XVIII century, this word acquires the meaning of "a full member of society, the state." But in the twentieth century, especially in the 20-30s, a custom appeared, and then it became the norm when addressing arrested, convicted, prisoners to law enforcement officers and vice versa not to say tovarish (comrade), only grazhdanin (citizen). As a result, the word grazhdanin (citizen) for many has become associated with detention, arrest, police, prosecutor's office. The fate of the word tovarish (comrade) was somewhat different. It came to us from the Turkic language in the XV century and had the root tovar (product), meaning "property, cattle, goods". Probably, initially the tovarish (comrade) had the meaning of "torgovyi tovarish" (trading companion), then it was supplemented with the meaning of "friend". Since the end of the XIX century, Marxist circles have been created in Russia, their members called each other comrades. During communism, tovarish (comrade) was the main appeal to a person, later it began to be replaced by words like: muzhchina (man), zhenshina (woman), dedushka (grandfather), tetya (aunt), dyadya (uncle). These appeals may be perceived by the addressee as disrespect to him, unacceptable familiarity. Since the end of the 80-xx of the last century, the addresses begin to return to everyday life: gospodin (mister), gospozha (madam).

In Russian, the form of address associated with kinship relations implies mentioning the family status of papa (dad), mama (mom), babushka (grandma), dedushka (grandpa), sestra (sister), brat (brother), etc. Older people call each other by their first name and patronymic Nikolai Petrovich, etc. In phatic communication, in the speech of close people, in conversations with children, the address is often accompanied or replaced by periphrases, epithets with diminutive suffixes: Anechka, zaichik tiy moi (my bunny); milochka (darling), kisa (kitty), etc. National and cultural traditions prescribe certain forms of addressing strangers. It is appropriate to address them as a young man or a girl only if it corresponds to the age. Recently, the word dama (lady) is often used in casual colloquial speech when addressing an unfamiliar woman, but when addressing a man, the word gospodin (mister) is used only in an official, semi-official, club setting.

In situations of less formal communication in English, as in Kazakh, the address by name is used, but we find differences in some aspects of the use of such an address. As mentioned above, in England it is not customary to address people of higher social status by name or to those who provide professional services: doctors, lawyers, lawyers. However, there are cases when communication participants ask to be called by name. This is possible when a student addresses a teacher, a subordinate to a boss, as well as within the family (children - parents and older relatives, as well as neighbors, friends of parents, etc.). For example, when a teacher introduces himself to students, he can say:

My name is Doctor Liza John. You may call me either Liza or Doctor John.

This feature is again due to the principle of equality of each member of the English linguistic culture, which is the result of the process of democratization of society. The British try not to show their status superiority in communication, so as not to humiliate the dignity of the interlocutor.

As for appeals within the family, in English there are formulas like uncle Jake, aunt Nancy, grandpa Tom, granny Jane, but here the name is in second place, and these formulas are used only in relation to relatives. In Russian, the commonly used formulas are dyadya Oleg (Uncle Oleg), tetya Mariya (Aunt Mariya), babushka Valya (grandma Valya), etc. In this case, the name is usually used in its short form and stands, as in English, in second place. In the Kazakh language, there are formulas like Marat-aga (y) (uncle Marat), Aizhan-apa (y) (aunt Aizhan). The words aga (y) (uncle) and apa (y) (aunt) are placed after the name. The difference between aga-agai and apa-apai is that a word with the element y is a sign of a kinder-hearted attitude towards the addressee. In addition, the same words (aga(y), apa(y) they can also be used in relation to those who are not relatives, for example, when children address unfamiliar adults, friends of parents, neighbors, parents of friends, etc. These formulas of address in all three languages are used by younger family members in relation to older ones.

There are also features of naming people in society, at work or at home. In English, the preference for the nominal formula of the address is determined both by the situation of communication and the degree of familiarity of the communication participants. If in an official situation subordinates address the boss, calling him either by his position (Dean, Doctor), or Mr /Mrs / Miss + surname, then in an informal communication situation they can address him by name. In the Kazakh language, the subordinate's address to the boss is of the type 'Salem, Sultan' (‘Hello, Sultan’) are excluded, as this will be considered rude familiarity and disrespect to a superior person. The preferred form of address in this case will be "Salemetsizbe, Sultan-aga” ("Hello, Sultan-aga"), or "Salemetsizbe, Sultan Magzhanuly” ("Hello, Sultan Magzhanuly”). Typical for the Russian linguoculture are, again, addresses by first name and patronymic, as well as, in the case of a friendly disposition of communication participants, by name. In the Kazakh language there are practically no diminutive forms of the name, whereas in English they are widely used: Tom (Thomas), Lisa (Elizabeth), Phil(Philip),  etc. Abbreviated names often completely replace the official name of a person and are used by everyone around them: relatives, colleagues, friends, while in the Kazakh language they are the exception rather than the rule (Akbota - Bota), and not all names have abbreviated forms; these forms in the Kazakh language are a sign of familiarity and are not used in an official setting. The Russian linguoculture is also characterized by shortening names, however, unlike English, this is not a fixed form, the name is shortened in the process of pronouncing it when the speaker simply does not pronounce it to the end: Kohl, Tan’, Marivanna, San’ Sanych. In addition, English is characterized by the presence of such diminutive suffixes as -ie, -y: Nick - Nickie, Nicky, Elizabeth - Lizzie, Ted - Teddy, Teddie, etc. The Kazakh language is characterized by the presence of a diminutive suffix such as-ke, -zhan, -tai, which is added to the abbreviated name: Marat - Make, Ainur - Ainurzhan, Akan – Akantai.

Russian, the addition of diminutive suffixes to names is more typical for female speech, the suffixes themselves can be added to both female and male names: Sasha-enka, Tan-yechka, Van-yechka, etc. A distinctive feature of the Russian language in this case is that different suffixes can be added to one name, for example, Ira, Irochka, Irinka, Irinochka, Irisha, Irishka.

In the Russian language, nominative forms of addressing an unfamiliar addressee are also quite numerous and situationally conditioned: molodoi chelovek (young man), paren (boyfriend), priyatel (buddy), drug (a friend), bratok (brother), devushka (lady), zhenshina (woman), sistrichka (sister), milochka (sweetheart). English uses such forms of address in such situations as a fellow, a young man, a boy, a mate, love, stranger. In the Kazakh language, in a similar situation, the forms can be used zholdas, dostym, kurbym (friend, relative/peer), kurdas (friend, when addressing a peer);

Summing up all of the above, we will highlight the main features of the forms of address in three languages:

  • there are more abbreviations in English than in Kazakh;
  • the terms of kinship in English communication are used only when addressing relatives, and in Kazakh and Russian the scope of their use is much wider;
  • in English and Russian, abbreviated forms of names are used much more often when addressing, but they are due to different reasons;
  • the number of forms of addressing an unfamiliar addressee in Kazakh and Russian is greater than in English;
  • Kazakh and, to a lesser extent, Russian languages are characterized by forms of address such as countryman, neighbor, brother, sister, mother, grandmother, uncle, etc.; in English communicative culture, these forms are not used;
  • the forms of addressing an unfamiliar addressee in the Kazakh language convey a collectivist, familial way of life, whereas in English – individualistic.


Список литературы

  1. Словарь по этике/Под ред. И.С. Кона. — М., 1975. — 377 с.
  2. Гольдин В.Е. К проблеме обращения как лексической категории // Язык и общество. — Саратов, 1977. — Вып. 4. —  19-31 с.
  3. Словарь по этике/Под ред. И.С. Кона. — М., 1981. — 412 с.
  4. Формановская Н.И. Русский речевой этикет: Лингвистический и методический аспекты. – М., 1987. – 9 с.
  5. Введенская Л. А. Русский язык и культура речи / Л.А. Введенская //Русский язык и культура речи. — М., 2002. — 67c.
  6. Виноградов С.И. Культура русской речи/ Платонова О.В. //Учебник для вузов. – М., 2001. – 560 с.
  7. Ломоносов М.В. Полное собрание сочинений. Т. 7. М.-Л., 1952. — 995 с.
  8. Формановская, Н.И. Обращение // Русский язык в школе. 1994. — № 3. — 84-88 с.
  9. Леонова Д. Ф. Ласковое обращение в казахском и русском языках // Филология и литературоведение. — Декабрь 2011. — № 3.

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